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As kayaking evolved over a period of time Cheap Dougie Hamilton Jersey , there were many developments and innovations that took place, especially with respect to the equipments used. The addition of these tools has allowed kayaking enthusiasts to easily take up the sport and master it. Although flatwater and whitewater kayaks have several similar equipments, there are some parts that are specifically used either in sea kayaking or in whitewater kayaking. Rudders and skegs are precisely such parts that are used only in sea kayaking.


Rudders are basically used to keep the kayak on a straight path. This is very crucial during sea kayaking as on open waters, kayaks tend to get wayward. In such situations, paddlers can steer the kayak with the help of the rudders and keep it on a straight path.

The rudder is designed like a blade that is attached to the stern of the kayak and is controlled through the foot pedals in the cockpit. Thus, to steer the kayak to the right the paddler pushes on the right pedal the rudder blade would pivot to the right and vice versa. When the paddler pushes the right pedal Cheap Travis Hamonic Jersey , the right side if the kayak slows down while the left side continues to move at the same speed. This makes steering easy. The rudder is attached to the foot pedals with the help of stainless steel or cordage cables.

Yet another advantage is that rudders can easily be deployed or put away from the cockpit. Thus, paddlers can easily raise the rudders while launching or landing the kayak or while navigating through shallow waters. Rudders are mainly useful on open seas and very long kayaks.

Rudders also come with special keeper cords that help in securing them to the deck of the kayaks. This makes it easy to store the rudders during transportation.

Often, as kayakers grow in experience and become more adept in paddling, they use less of rudders as they can control the direction themselves.


Usually used in tandem with rudders, skegs are used in tracking. When paddling crosswind, a kayak with skegs would usually go sideways down the wind. To prevent it from going downwind Cheap Sean Monahan Jersey , the paddler must balance the bow and the stern equally. It becomes easy to balance the bow and the stern by trimming the skeg. This would ensure that the kayak maintains its proper direction.

When the skeg is turned upwards, the kayak turns into the wind while when it is turned down, the kayak turns downwind. To turn the kayak crosswind, the skeg must be positioned halfway down.

Unlike in rudder kayaks, skegs also ensure that paddlers can position their feet freely and brace them properly. While controlling rudder kayaks, paddlers need to place one foot on the pedal to direct the kayak. However Cheap Matthew Tkachuk Jersey , skegs do not require this and thus allow free feet movement for the paddlers during advanced maneuvers like edging, rolling and skulling.

Rudders and skegs, though not mandatory, are good additions to the kayak and help in maintaining the direction of the kayak and controlling it easily.

HANOI, Sept. 22 (Xinhua) -- Vietnam's public debt was 94 billion U.S. dollars by the end of 2015, or 61 percent of its gross domestic product (GDP) Cheap Mikael Backlund Jersey , local media on Friday quoted the country's Finance Ministry as reporting.

Of the public debt, external debt was over 39.6 billion dollars, and internal debt was more than 54 billion dollars, daily newspaper Tuoi Tre (Youth) cited the ministry's latest public debt bulletin.

In 2015, the Vietnamese government borrowed total loans of 52 billion dollars, mostly internal debt Cheap Kris Versteeg Jersey , much higher than the figure in 2011.

Meanwhile, the government paid over 13.3 billion dollars to creditors, mostly local ones.

Since 2013, the government has borrowed money mostly from internal sources, limiting its external debt.

Vietnam's budget revenue over GDP decreased from 26.3 percent in the 2006-2010 period to 23.6 percent of GDP between 2011 and 2016, newspaper Nhan Dan (People) quoted Vietnamese Finance Minister Dinh Tien Dung as saying.

The country's tax policy system will be revised to cover all revenue sources and expand the collection base Cheap TJ Brodie Jersey , especially in regards to new revenue sources in line with international practice.

Vietnam is trying to keep its public debt below 65 percent of GDP between 2016 and 2018, online newspaper VietNamNet reported.

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ABUJA, Sept. 26 (Xinhua) -- The Nigerian government on Tuesday said it was leading the campaign for effective and robust tax regimes in Africa, particularly as there was a strong link between economic development and tax.

At the opening of a two-day international conference on tax in Africa Cheap Mark Giordano Jersey , held in the Nigerian capital city of Abuja, minister of finance, Kemi Adeosun said there was no rich country with a poor tax system and there was also no poor country with a strong tax system.

According to the Nigerian official, there was a need to develop a predictable and transparent tax administration that can guarantee the efficient flow of revenue.

"In Nigeria, we are working hard to improve transparency in the system, so as to boost the confidence of taxpayers Michael Frolik Jersey ," she said. "They need to know their money is well utilized to ensure they will be willing to pay tax.

Tagged "Building strong domestic tax regimes in Africa," the international conference was o.

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